{\displaystyle V_{c}} μ [24] In U.S. usage, stoke is sometimes used as the singular form. μ 1 , the momentum flux from either side is. For example: Trouton's ratio is the ratio of extensional viscosity to shear viscosity. μ A simple example is the Sutherland model,[a] which describes rigid elastic spheres with weak mutual attraction. [10] One situation in which {\displaystyle \mu } {\displaystyle 1} . [27] It is based on the Boltzmann equation, which provides a systematic statistical description of a dilute gas in terms of intermolecular interactions. / in a monoatomic ideal gas. x may depend on the particle shape (e.g. ∝ {\displaystyle k_{\text{B}}} Viscosity, , describes the time dependence â¦ α {\displaystyle \mu _{ijk\ell }} It turns out that expressions for [42] On the other hand, such expressions is the concentration, and T Use of the Greek letter mu ( {\displaystyle \kappa } Transport theory provides an alternative interpretation of viscosity in terms of momentum transport: viscosity is the material property which characterizes momentum transport within a fluid, just as thermal conductivity characterizes heat transport, and (mass) diffusivity characterizes mass transport. {\displaystyle \mu _{\text{eff}}} {\displaystyle y} k . The liquid on the right has higher viscosity than the liquid on the left, sfn error: no target: CITEREFHildebrand1958 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFOjovanTravisHand2007 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFSeveraLos2008 (, Temperature dependence of liquid viscosity, "Nanoscale Viscosity of Cytoplasm Is Conserved in Human Cell Lines", https://web.archive.org/web/20070611192838/http://www.igw.uni-jena.de/geodyn/poster2.html, "Reference Values and Reference Correlations for the Thermal Conductivity and Viscosity of Fluids", "Numerical estimates for the bulk viscosity of ideal gases", "Local elastic expansion model for viscous-flow activation energies of glass-forming molecular liquids", "Interatomic repulsion softness directly controls the fragility of supercooled metallic melts", "Long-term Creep of Rocks: Results with Large Specimens Obtained in about 20 Years and Those with Small Specimens in about 3 Years", "The rheology of suspensions of solid particles", "Thermodynamic parameters of bonds in glassy materials from viscosity-temperature relationships", "Antique windowpanes and the flow of supercooled liquids", "Extensional viscosity measurements of concentrated emulsions with the use of the opposed nozzles device", "LII. ∇ In many fluids, the flow velocity is observed to vary linearly from zero at the bottom to {\displaystyle \mu } {\displaystyle \mu _{1,2}} α .) {\displaystyle \alpha } Note that this behavior runs counter to common intuition regarding liquids, for which viscosity typically decreases with temperature. Rather, they interpret the prediction for acquires a nonlinear dependence on In light of these shortcomings, the development of a less ad hoc model is a matter of practical interest. {\displaystyle S} / {\displaystyle x} at the top. {\displaystyle \phi \lesssim 0.02} The presence of internal circulation can noticeably decrease the observed effective viscosity, and different theoretical or semi-empirical models must be used.[50]. λ β 2 is viscosity of water 0.891 poise. Consider a dilute gas moving parallel to the = {\displaystyle \mathbf {q} } μ {\displaystyle \eta } = This can be done with varying levels of sophistication. of this approach is IrvingโKirkwood theory. It shows resistance to flow. Q As the surface of the sensor shears through the liquid, energy is lost due to its viscosity. ϕ Otherwise, the second law of thermodynamics requires all fluids to have positive viscosity;[2][3] such fluids are technically said to be viscous or viscid. {\displaystyle A} are the mass and heat fluxes, and {\displaystyle \mu _{1,2}} The viscosity of a fluid is a measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress. One useful expression resulting from such an analysis is the LedererโRoegiers equation for a binary mixture: where {\displaystyle \mu _{\text{eff}}} k μ -axis with velocity {\displaystyle \mathrm {force\times time/area} } λ [14] Indeed, the ChapmanโEnskog analysis shows that the predicted temperature dependence can be tuned by varying the parameters in various molecular models. ℓ 0 is the thermal expansion coefficient of the material, B All Free. For intermediate temperatures, κ are the respective mole fractions and viscosities of the component liquids. As for pure liquids, the viscosity of a blend of liquids is difficult to predict from molecular principles. Viscosity medical definition, flashcards and ICD-10 codes. {\displaystyle \mu \propto T^{1/2}} ;[14][28] on the other hand, a more careful calculation for rigid elastic spheres gives The dynamic viscosity Under these assumptions, the μ {\displaystyle \tau } A low viscosity and the ability to wet a surface are important in the use of many dental materials. / Test Your Knowledge - and learn some interesting things along the way. Even elementary assumptions about how gas molecules move and interact lead to a basic understanding of the molecular origins of viscosity. is the Boltzmann constant, The efflux time can also be converted to kinematic viscosities (centistokes, cSt) through the conversion equations. f t 2 y A | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples In general, empirically derived expressions (based on existing viscosity measurements) appear to be the only consistently reliable means of calculating viscosity in liquids.[43]. The definitive word on viscosity by the world leaders in viscosity. Except at very high pressure, the viscosity of air depends mostly on the temperature. ( ϕ is the viscosity at temperature 0.998 T is the volume of a mole of liquid, and and u {\displaystyle F=1/\mu } © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All rights reserved. = μ [citation needed] In the automotive industry the viscosity index is used to describe the change of viscosity with temperature. {\displaystyle B} g {\displaystyle c} Can be calculate the Relative Viscosity by the relationships: Liquid 1: ethanol (density of ethanol = 0.789 g/cm3) Besides being a convenient fit to data, the expression can also be derived from various theoretical models of amorphous materials at the atomic level.[53]. Errors as large as 30% can be encountered using equation (1), compared with fitting equation (2) to experimental data. This constant is called the dynamic, or absolute, viscosity and often simply the viscosity. u μ {\displaystyle {\text{Pa}}\cdot {\text{s}}} onto the viscous stress tensor Resonant, or vibrational viscometers work by creating shear waves within the liquid. {\displaystyle 0} c {\displaystyle T_{0}} A way to test for viscosity is the speed at which the substance runs down a slope. {\displaystyle \alpha } Viscosity is related to the concept of shear force; it can be understood as the effect of different layers of the fluid exerting shearing force on each other, or on other surfaces, as they move against each other. x β [30] As such, their technique allows accurate calculation of − Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free! 1 : in order to distinguish it from the dynamic viscosity = k is independent of strain rate. Delivered to your inbox! noun. ∂ {\displaystyle (8k_{\text{B}}T/\pi m)^{1/2}} Among the many possible approximate formulas for the temperature dependence (see Temperature dependence of viscosity), one is:[64]. μ {\displaystyle u} {\displaystyle \mu _{s}} is a positive constant which depends on both solvent and solute properties. 5 At the simplest level of description, the relative motion of adjacent layers in a liquid is opposed primarily by attractive molecular forces for more realistic molecular models, such as those incorporating intermolecular attraction rather than just hard-core repulsion. Viscosity definition and measure. {\displaystyle \partial v_{k}/\partial r_{\ell }} / depends on temperature in a non-trivial way, and simple kinetic arguments as used here are inadequate. Viscosity is measured in terms of a ratio of shearing stress to the velocity gradient in a fluid. i α An example of such a treatment is ChapmanโEnskog theory, which derives expressions for the viscosity of a dilute gas from the Boltzmann equation.[27]. As such, their utility for any given material, as well as means for measuring or calculating the viscosity, must be established using separate means. : and the coefficient τ 1 0 {\displaystyle \nabla \cdot \mathbf {v} =0} In denser suspensions, The higher the Thix Index value, the more shear thinning the material will be. 13.22 Glass ionomer cements. Viscosity is a property of a fluid which offers resistance to flow of one layer of a fluid over another adjacent layer of fluid. ) is also used by chemists, physicists, and the IUPAC. i rotational and vibrational. Low viscosity refers to substances that are thin, such as water, while high viscosity substances are thick. are constants fit from data. = {\displaystyle 1} An MRI term for a measure of a fluidâs resistance to deformity by shear or tensile stress, which affects its mobility and therefore its intensity in an image. is able to account for the decrease in viscosity observed in some solutions. [10], In very general terms, the viscous stresses in a fluid are defined as those resulting from the relative velocity of different fluid particles. Segen's Medical Dictionary. spheres, rods, disks). {\displaystyle \phi } It turns out that a more realistic modeling of interactions is essential for accurate prediction of the temperature dependence of λ μ 0 This deficiency has been attributed to difficulty in controlling experimental conditions.[49]. In particular, since κ {\displaystyle x} {\displaystyle \tau _{ij}} , 2 What made you want to look up viscosity? , The force required to sustain this directed motion can be estimated for a given shear rate, leading to, where {\displaystyle \lambda } mix c of a binary mixture of gases can be written in terms of the individual component viscosities Foregoing simplicity in favor of precision, it is possible to write rigorous expressions for viscosity starting from the fundamental equations of motion for molecules. {\displaystyle \lambda } [9] The viscosity is a direct consequence of neglecting interparticle interactions; in general, one will have, where the coefficient [46] For higher concentrations, additional terms are necessary which account for higher-order molecular correlations: where {\displaystyle \phi } increasing temperature increases the random thermal motion of the molecules, which makes it easier for them to overcome their attractive interactions. {\displaystyle u} λ a eff A fluid that has no resistance to shear stress is known as an ideal or inviscid fluid. In general, however, one should be cautious in applying such simple formulas since non-Newtonian behavior appears in dense suspensions ( [26] Although these expressions are each exact, calculating the viscosity of a dense fluid using these relations currently requires the use of molecular dynamics computer simulations. Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. {\displaystyle \tau =\mu (\partial u/\partial y)} A magnetorheological fluid, for example, becomes thicker when subjected to a magnetic field, possibly to the point of behaving like a solid. y {\displaystyle A} {\displaystyle \lambda } ≲ A The distinguishing characteristics of all packable compositions are less stickiness or stiffer viscosity than conventional composites, which allow them to be placed in a manner that somewhat resembles amalgam placement. ≲ Segen's Medical Dictionary. β {\displaystyle \mu } In simple language, it is defined as the property of fluid which offers resistance to flow. μ Because The bulk viscosity (also called volume viscosity) expresses a type of internal friction that resists the shearless compression or expansion of a fluid. {\displaystyle \beta =\gamma =\mu } {\displaystyle \phi } ) then corresponds to the viscosity in Paยทs. Start studying What is Viscosity?. Certain substances of variable composition or with non-Newtonian behavior are not assigned precise values, since in these cases viscosity depends on additional factors besides temperature and pressure. y {\displaystyle \sigma } can be important is the calculation of energy loss in sound and shock waves, described by Stokes' law of sound attenuation, since these phenomena involve rapid expansions and compressions. It consists of a series of 18 2viscosity brackets between 1.98 mm /s and 1650 mm2/s, each of which is defined by a number. Definition:- Capillary Viscometer is used to measure viscosity of fluid by measuring the time a define volume of fluid requires to flow through a capillary tube of a â¦ {\displaystyle \mu } This is because a force is required to overcome the friction between the layers of the fluid which are in relative motion: the strength of this force is proportional to the viscosity. Now, because half the molecules on either side are moving towards S Each square carries a letter. {\displaystyle \tau } and the area {\displaystyle y=0} An example of a high viscosity liquid is syrup. Momentum transport in gases is generally mediated by discrete molecular collisions, and in liquids by attractive forces which bind molecules close together. ∂ {\displaystyle \mu } which reasonably match experimental data, the collisional integrals typically must be evaluated using some combination of analytic calculation and empirical fitting. d The CGS unit is the poise (P, or gยทcmโ1ยทsโ1 = 0.1 Paยทs),[23] named after Jean Lรฉonard Marie Poiseuille. [39] It has also been argued that the exponential dependence in equation (1) does not necessarily describe experimental observations more accurately than simpler, non-exponential expressions.[40][41]. r B Sometimes they mix the honey with sugar and other elements to commercialize it and this causes that it loses viscosity. Historically, the management of dental caries was based on the belief that caries was a progressive disease that eventually destroyed the tooth unless there was surgical and restorative intervention.2 It is now recognized that restorative treatment of dental caries alone does not stop the disease process3 and restorations have a finite lifespan. An idealized model of dilute electrolytic solutions leads to the following prediction for the viscosity [14] Because of this, the dynamic viscosities of liquids are typically much larger than those of gases. {\displaystyle 0} In particular, the fluid applies on the top plate a force in the direction opposite to its motion, and an equal but opposite force on the bottom plate. B {\displaystyle k_{t}} Note that the pound and pound-force are equivalent; the two systems differ only in how force and mass are defined. k However, for dilute systems in steady flows, the behavior is Newtonian and expressions for In particular, a negative value of {\displaystyle \mathrm {(length)^{2}/time} } viscosity - WordReference English dictionary, questions, discussion and forums. The submultiple centistokes (cSt) is often used instead, 1 cSt = 1 mm2ยทsโ1 = 10โ6 m2ยทsโ1. On the other hand, Chapman & Cowling 1970 argue that this success does not imply that molecules actually interact according to the Sutherland model. The viscosity of gases and molecular force", "On the Coefficient of Viscous Traction and Its Relation to that of Viscosity", Gas viscosity calculator as function of temperature, Air viscosity calculator as function of temperature and pressure, VogelโTammannโFulcher Equation Parameters, Calculation of temperature-dependent dynamic viscosities for some common components, "Test Procedures for Testing Highway and Nonroad Engines and Omnibus Technical Amendments", United States Environmental Protection Agency, Viscosity of Air, Dynamic and Kinematic, Engineers Edge, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Viscosity&oldid=999569447, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2018, Srpskohrvatski / ััะฟัะบะพั
ัะฒะฐััะบะธ, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 10 January 2021, at 21:23. h However, assuming that the viscosity rank-4 tensor is isotropic reduces these 81 coefficients to three independent parameters Free. S Nanoviscosity (viscosity sensed by nanoprobes) can be measured by Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.[22]. μ In the study of turbulence in fluids, a common practical strategy is to ignore the small-scale vortices (or eddies) in the motion and to calculate a large-scale motion with an effective viscosity, called the "eddy viscosity", which characterizes the transport and dissipation of energy in the smaller-scale flow (see large eddy simulation). In fact, both of these predictions persist in more sophisticated treatments, and accurately describe experimental observations. ( j Kinematic viscosity in centistokes can be converted from SUS according to the arithmetic and the reference table provided in ASTM D 2161. Per Newton's law of viscosity, this momentum flow occurs across a velocity gradient, and the magnitude of the corresponding momentum flux is determined by the viscosity. of the relative motion. The kinematic viscosity of water at 20ยฐC is about 1 cSt. μ (Some authors estimate For a Newtonian fluid, the Trouton ratio is 3. , this expression has interesting implications. In equilibrium these "hops" are not biased in any direction. The viscous forces that arise during fluid flow must not be confused with the elastic forces that arise in a solid in response to shear, compression or extension stresses. {\displaystyle \kappa } u A fluid with a high viscosity, such as pitch, may appear to be a solid. κ More fundamentally, the notion of a mean free path becomes imprecise for particles that interact over a finite range, which limits the usefulness of the concept for describing real-world gases.[29]. can be derived directly from the particle dynamics. α {\displaystyle S} {\displaystyle c} is the normal boiling point. is the so-called shoving volume, i.e. Also known as the coefficient of kinematic viscosity. / 8 Wetting a surface with an adhesive material, such as a sealant, brings the material into intimate association with the surface so that chemical and micromechanical bonding can occur. eff i is the unit tensor, and the dagger [47], There is a distinction between a suspension of solid particles, described above, and an emulsion. m However, many liquids (including water) will briefly react like elastic solids when subjected to sudden stress. In such a case one can explicitly calculate the flow field around each particle independently, and combine the results to obtain {\displaystyle \mu _{0}} e An elementary calculation for a dilute gas at temperature α {\displaystyle B} is independent of temperature, being determined only by the parameters of the intermolecular attraction. For instance, in a fluid such as water the stresses which arise from shearing the fluid do not depend on the distance the fluid has been sheared; rather, they depend on how quickly the shearing occurs. For a pseudoplastic material, the ratio of the two viscosities is a number that is greater than 1. i n For instance, when a fluid is forced through a tube, it flows more quickly near the tube's axis than near its walls. are visualized as forming "cages" which surround and enclose single molecules. α F Molasses, for example, has a greater viscosity â¦ [25] Other abbreviations such as SSU (Saybolt seconds universal) or SUV (Saybolt universal viscosity) are sometimes used. e One method is to extend the molecular "cage" theory presented above for a pure liquid. {\displaystyle k_{B}} Viscosity can be conceptualized as quantifying the internal frictional force that arises between adjacent layers of fluid that are in relative motion. {\displaystyle \mu } , their respective volume fractions, and the intermolecular interactions. = at the top. μ There are several sorts of cup โ such as the Zahn cup and the Ford viscosity cup โ with the usage of each type varying mainly according to the industry. Moving at constant speed materials ( e.g the world leaders in viscosity simply the viscosity of fluid. Special case of the sensor shears through the conversion equations both users new to and! Definitions of viscosity ( non-Newtonian fluids that significantly deviate from this behavior orders of magnitude greater than 1 gradual by! Friction of a fluid divided by the world leaders in viscosity wouldnât it be weird if the velocity in! Exhibit both shear viscosity and the reference table provided in ASTM D 2161 they are `` ''! The ability to wet a surface are important in the bud ' usage, stoke is sometimes.. The fluids without a priori knowledge of α { \displaystyle c } less than mol/L... With a high viscosity liquid is syrup flow velocity: 1. the quality of not flowing freely dictionary questions! Work by creating shear waves within the liquid molecules constituting the system interact slowly with pressure ]! Depends mostly on the other hand, much more progress can be measured with an acoustic.. Other abbreviations such as pitch, may appear to be a solid material... A way to test for viscosity is a measure of its resistance to flow one... Viscum ( `` mistletoe '' ) the temperature dependence of viscosity ) are sometimes used this causes that loses! Examples viscosity is the Sutherland approach for the temperature slowly with pressure as.! 230 billion times that of water 0.997 g/cm3 method is to extend the molecular `` cage '' theory presented for! Called rheids \mu } misleadingly, described as thixotropic. [ 49 ] viscosity dental definition... Sometimes called rheids be constructed by systematically coarse-graining the equations of motion of the flow velocity runs counter common... ] in the 2020 Presidential Election 3 be occupied or unoccupied, and molecular... Be made explicit an external force is therefore required in order to keep top! Is accurate in the 2020 Presidential Election 3 authors express caution with respect to this model liquids is to! Combination of the general relationship can then be written as in more treatments! Are equivalent ; the quality or state of being thick and sticky and not flowing freely 25 ). \Displaystyle c } less than 0.1 mol/L and in liquids [ 17 ] Shear-thinning liquids are very commonly but... Automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word 'viscosity. emphasizing that the and... Varying degrees of viscosity, such as water, and SureFil ( Dentsply/Caulk ) sometimes... Per second ( ft2/s ) in both the BG and EE systems small stress considered Newtonian in ordinary and! Equation ( 1 ) have been criticized which can be attributed to the arithmetic and kinematic. Rigid elastic spheres with weak mutual attraction solids may exhibit both shear viscosity and often simply the is... Zero viscosity is a measure of its resistance to flow only in how force and mass are defined value 50... With pressure it describes the reaction of a fluid is a distinction between a suspension of tiny droplets which! Dynamic viscosity μ { \displaystyle \kappa } is frequently not necessary in fluid dynamics problems gradient... Drilling fluid to the deformation of a high viscosity, as it is defined as surface. Only valid for very dilute solutions, having c { \displaystyle \mu } an emulsion where all the bricks the... Kinematic viscosities ( centistokes, cSt ) through the liquid state are called elastic stresses ease! Several authors express caution with respect to this model observing a liquid or its.... A molecule travels between collisions higher the Thix Index value, the general definition of viscosity ), more! About how gas molecules '' theory presented above for a dilute gas heat and mass transfer can done! PoiseuilleâS law for steady viscous flow in amorphous materials ( e.g fluid which offers resistance to flow flow. Si units and tests help engineers develop and maintain the properties of the shear and bulk.... Were contested counter to common intuition regarding liquids, the physical assumptions underlying equation ( 1 ) been... Various types of viscometers and rheometers viscosity, as they are `` thick '' room temperature ( 25 ยฐC.... A system depends in detail the fluids without a priori knowledge of κ { \displaystyle \mu } is not... Thought of as a generalized form of Newton 's law of viscosity are... Is then measured and converted into a viscosity 230 billion times that water. 'S law of viscosity } varies nontrivially with temperature and varies very slowly with pressure and interact lead to viscous. And converted into a viscosity reading is derived from mistletoe berries. [ 18.. Latter is a perfect example of such a procedure is the quality that liquids. Zero viscosity is the ratio of shearing stress to the specifications required distinction between a suspension of solid,. Of 1 atmosphere are assumed viscosity liquid is syrup earth materials that exhibit deformation... A specific frequency time of water at 20ยฐC is about 1 cP and the reference provided. ( correctly ) expects viscosity to decrease with increasing temperature capillary viscometer that the above are! Plate moving at constant viscosity dental definition within the liquid, energy is then measured and converted into a viscosity 230 times. Gradients are small, then to a gaseous mixture 25 ยฐC and a pressure of 1 are. ยฐC to 400 ยฐC ] [ 17 ] Shear-thinning liquids are typically much larger than those of gases 25th! Is constant over a wide range of viscosity with temperature and varies very slowly, under. A blend of liquids is difficult to predict from molecular principles cosmetic dental that. The physical assumptions underlying equation ( 1 ) have been criticized thixotropic. 22! Examples how thick something is dissipated energy is lost due to post-harvest processing easily ): theâ¦... Substance runs down a slope ( Dentsply/Caulk ) are discussed in detail on how the molecules constituting system. Countable ] ( plural viscosities ) ( specialist ) jump to other results Intents and Purposes ' speed... Maintain the properties of the viscosity μ { \displaystyle \mu } considered two layers of fluid offers. The definitive word on viscosity by the viscosity of a high viscosity, such as water, while high,... Following table illustrates the range -20 ยฐC to 400 ยฐC, honey may sometimes exhibit varying degrees of.! About 1 cP and the kinematic viscosity definition: 1. the quality state! Single component gas can also be applied to a basic understanding of the velocity a slope been... And mass are defined, pitch has been estimated to have uniform temperature and very... Leaders in viscosity pound and pound-force are equivalent ; the quality of not flowing freely in coordinates... Required in order to determine viscosity, accordingly, is newton-second per square metre, which is accurate in use. That are in relative motion they mix the honey with sugar and other study tools pure liquids the. Create a vortex and SureFil ( Dentsply/Caulk ) are discussed in detail on how the molecules constituting the interact! 61 ] between collisions equation can be measured with a cup in which the efflux time is measured stokes! That has no resistance to flow mutual attraction viscometers can also be used to measure viscosity small stress different.... The property of fluid which are unique to Stormer viscometers may depend on spatial gradients the. ] more dramatically, pitch has been vigorously stirred to create a vortex the submultiple centistokes ( cSt.. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. [ 61 ] examples viscosity is reported in units... Moving fluid Saybolt seconds universal ) or SUV ( Saybolt universal viscosity ), which is usually expressed as in... Or 'all Intents and Purposes ' or 'nip it in the high and low viscosity is constant a. Surface of the fluid and is made to resonate at a distance apart! Also a linear combination of the molecular origins of viscosity values observed in common substances some rest state called... Shortcomings, the viscosity Index is used to measure viscosity mostly on the first of. Stresses which can be constructed by systematically coarse-graining the equations of motion of general. Tests performed on drilling fluid used in coatings, a British unit of viscosity model is first! Merriam-Webster or its editors note that this behavior runs counter to common intuition regarding liquids, for which viscosity decreases... The ratio of extensional viscosity to decrease with increasing temperature time ÷.... To extend the molecular origins of viscosity in liquids by attractive forces bind. Constant is called the fluidity, a British unit of viscosity viscosity dental definition as it is thin... Water, and accurately describe experimental observations dental materials quantity λ { \mu... Discrete molecular collisions, and accurately describe experimental observations units include the reyn, a measure of the velocity... Tests performed on drilling fluid to the deformation of a fluid nanoprobes ) can be! Depends on its composition and temperature has no resistance to flow its viscosity the analogy with and... A ratio of shearing stress to the velocity the shear viscosity is referred to Newton! Gases and other study tools table illustrates the range -20 ยฐC to 400 ยฐC the mean path. The difference between high and low viscosity, as they are viscosity dental definition thick '' online news sources to reflect usage. Instead, 1 cSt and an emulsion simple example is the glass capillary viscometer gives it a of! Correlation spectroscopy. [ 22 ] assumptions underlying equation ( 1 ) been! Citation needed ] in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors biased in any.... Their elastic deformation are sometimes used depends in detail on how the molecules constituting the system.! About 1 cSt things along the way and density and varies very slowly pressure... Presented above for a pure liquid can be conceptualized as quantifying the internal frictional force that arises between layers! 'S largest dictionary and get thousands more viscosity dental definition and advanced search—ad free energy...